Emptiness and Appearance


History of Western Philosophy


Early Greek Philosophy

Mediated between Thales’ ‘water’ and Alexemander’s ‘boundless’ and suggested ‘air’ as the primary substance from which all things originate.

From Miletus in Asia Minor. Milesian School with Thales and Anaximander. Student if Aneximander. Elaborated on Thales’ and Aleximander’s views on cosmology.
Believed air was the substance holding the universe together. Things arrive at their nature by how contracted or expanded they are.
From these ideas, he proposed various conclusions on the universe, reducing a purely material origin. In today’s light, these views may seem quaint; however, it was the first time questions of the ultimate nature of things and what constitutes reality were raised.



“The mighty main sea is the begetter of clouds, winds and rivers.”
“To what purpose should I trouble myself in searching out the secrets of the stars, having death or slavery continually before my eyes?”
“The heart is flat, being borne upon the air, and similarly, the sun, moon and the other heavenly bodies which are all fiery, ride upon air through their flatness.”
“Everything is air.”


Influenced by these:


Influenced these:

Anaximander, Aristotle and many others.

Guide Template


BCE c. 586 - c. 526

5th century BCE

Anaximenes bio